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If the notch is omitted, the card can be read and written. If the card is notched, it is read-only. The diagram to the right shows an orange sliding write-protect tab in both the unlocked and locked positions.

The presence of a notch, and the presence and position of a tab, have no effect on the SD card's operation. A host device that supports write protection should refuse to write to an SD card that is designated read-only in this way.

Some host devices do not support write protection, which is an optional feature of the SD specification. Drivers and devices that do obey a read-only indication may give the user a way to override it.

Cards sold with content that must not be altered are permanently marked read-only by having a notch and no sliding tab.

A locked card interacts normally with the host device except that it rejects commands to read and write data.

A locked card can be unlocked only by providing the same password. The host device can, after supplying the old password, specify a new password or disable locking.

Without the password typically, in the case that the user forgets the password , the host device can command the card to erase all the data on the card for future re-use except card data under DRM , but there is no way to gain access to the existing data.

Windows Phone 8 devices use SD cards designed for access only by the phone manufacturer or mobile provider. An SD card inserted into the phone underneath the battery compartment becomes locked "to the phone with an automatically generated key" so that "the SD card cannot be read by another phone, device, or PC".

It is therefore possible to use a device such as the Nokia N8 to reformat the card for subsequent use in other devices.

Various implementations of smartSD cards have been done for payment applications and secured authentication. Vendors have sought to differentiate their products in the market through various vendor-specific features:.

SDIO cards are only fully functional in host devices designed to support their input-output functions typically PDAs like the Palm Treo , but occasionally laptops or mobile phones.

Inserting an SDIO card into any SD slot causes no physical damage nor disruption to the host device, but users may be frustrated that the SDIO card does not function fully when inserted into a seemingly compatible slot.

USB and Bluetooth devices exhibit comparable compatibility issues, although to a lesser extent thanks to standardized USB device classes and Bluetooth profiles.

The one-bit SD protocol was derived from the MMC protocol, which envisioned the ability to put up to three cards on a bus of common signal lines.

The cards use open collector interfaces, where a card may pull a line to the low voltage level; the line is at the high voltage level because of a pull-up resistor if no card pulls it low.

Though the cards shared clock and signal lines, each card had its own chip select line to sense that the host device had selected it.

The SD protocol envisioned the ability to gang 30 cards together without separate chip select lines.

The host device would broadcast commands to all cards and identify the card to respond to the command using its unique serial number. In practice, cards are rarely ganged together because open-collector operation has problems at high speeds and increases power consumption.

Newer versions of the SD specification recommend separate lines to each card. Host devices that comply with newer versions of the specification provide backward compatibility and accept older SD cards.

Older host devices generally do not support newer card formats, and even when they might support the bus interface used by the card, [6] there are several factors that arise:.

Developers predicted that DRM would induce wide use by music suppliers concerned about piracy. For this reason the D within the logo resembles an optical disc.

The SD Association, headquartered in San Ramon, California, United States, started with about 30 companies and today consists of about 1, product manufacturers that make interoperable memory cards and devices.

While the new cards were designed especially for mobile phones, they are usually packaged with a miniSD adapter that provides compatibility with a standard SD memory card slot.

Since , miniSD cards were no longer produced. TransFlash and microSD cards are functionally identical allowing either to operate in devices made for the other.

In April , Panasonic introduced MicroP2 card format for professional video applications. Secure Digital cards are used in many consumer electronic devices, and have become a widespread means of storing several gigabytes of data in a small size.

The microSD card has helped propel the smartphone market by giving both manufacturers and consumers greater flexibility and freedom. Latest versions of major operating systems, including Windows Mobile and Android Marshmallow, allow applications to run from microSD cards creating possibilities for new usage models for SD cards in mobile computing markets.

SD cards are not the most economical solution in devices that need only a small amount of non-volatile memory, such as station presets in small radios.

They may also not present the best choice for applications that require higher storage capacities or speeds as provided by other flash card standards such as CompactFlash.

These limitations may be addressed by evolving memory technologies, such as the world's highest capacity SanDisk Ultra GB microSD released in Many personal computers of all types, including tablets and mobile phones, use SD cards, either through built-in slots or through an active electronic adapter.

Active adapters also let SD cards be used in devices designed for other formats, such as CompactFlash. The FlashPath adapter lets SD cards be used in a floppy disk drive.

Commonly found on the market are mislabeled or counterfeit Secure Digital cards that report a fake capacity or run slower than labeled.

The files that were copied back can be tested either by comparing checksums e. MD5 , or trying to compress them.

The latter approach leverages the fact that counterfeited cards let the user read back files, which then consist of easily compressible uniform data for example, repeating 0xFFs.

Some prosumer and professional digital cameras continued to offer CompactFlash CF , either on a second card slot or as the only storage, as CF supports much higher maximum capacities and historically was cheaper for the same capacity.

Although many personal computers accommodate SD cards as an auxiliary storage device using a built-in slot, or can accommodate SD cards by means of a USB adapter, SD cards cannot be used as the primary hard disk through the onboard ATA controller, because none of the SD card variants support ATA signalling.

However, on computers that support bootstrapping from a USB interface, an SD card in a USB adapter can be the primary hard disk, provided it contains an operating system that supports USB access once the bootstrap is complete.

Even if a microcontroller lacks the SPI feature, the feature can be emulated by bit banging. The SD card specification defines three physical sizes.

Smaller cards are usable in larger slots through use of a passive adapter. The micro form factor is the smallest SD card format.

Cards may support various combinations of the following bus types and transfer modes. Once the host device and the SD card negotiate a bus interface mode, the usage of the numbered pins is the same for all card sizes.

The physical interface comprises 9 pins, except that the miniSD card adds two unconnected pins in the center and the microSD card omits one of the two V SS Ground pins.

SD cards and host devices initially communicate through a synchronous one-bit interface, where the host device provides a clock signal that strobes single bits in and out of the SD card.

The host device thereby sends bit commands and receives responses. The card can signal that a response will be delayed, but the host device can abort the dialogue.

Through issuing various commands, the host device can: SD cards dropped support for some of the commands in the MMC protocol, but added commands related to copy protection.

By using only commands supported by both standards until determining the type of card inserted, a host device can accommodate both SD and MMC cards.

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Commonly found on the market are mislabeled or counterfeit Secure Digital cards that report a fake capacity or run slower than labeled.

The files that were copied back can be tested either by comparing checksums e. MD5 , or trying to compress them. The latter approach leverages the fact that counterfeited cards let the user read back files, which then consist of easily compressible uniform data for example, repeating 0xFFs.

Some prosumer and professional digital cameras continued to offer CompactFlash CF , either on a second card slot or as the only storage, as CF supports much higher maximum capacities and historically was cheaper for the same capacity.

Although many personal computers accommodate SD cards as an auxiliary storage device using a built-in slot, or can accommodate SD cards by means of a USB adapter, SD cards cannot be used as the primary hard disk through the onboard ATA controller, because none of the SD card variants support ATA signalling.

However, on computers that support bootstrapping from a USB interface, an SD card in a USB adapter can be the primary hard disk, provided it contains an operating system that supports USB access once the bootstrap is complete.

Even if a microcontroller lacks the SPI feature, the feature can be emulated by bit banging. The SD card specification defines three physical sizes.

Smaller cards are usable in larger slots through use of a passive adapter. The micro form factor is the smallest SD card format. Cards may support various combinations of the following bus types and transfer modes.

Once the host device and the SD card negotiate a bus interface mode, the usage of the numbered pins is the same for all card sizes. The physical interface comprises 9 pins, except that the miniSD card adds two unconnected pins in the center and the microSD card omits one of the two V SS Ground pins.

SD cards and host devices initially communicate through a synchronous one-bit interface, where the host device provides a clock signal that strobes single bits in and out of the SD card.

The host device thereby sends bit commands and receives responses. The card can signal that a response will be delayed, but the host device can abort the dialogue.

Through issuing various commands, the host device can: SD cards dropped support for some of the commands in the MMC protocol, but added commands related to copy protection.

By using only commands supported by both standards until determining the type of card inserted, a host device can accommodate both SD and MMC cards.

All SD card families initially use a 3. At initial power-up or card insertion, the host device selects either the Serial Peripheral Interface SPI bus or the one-bit SD bus by the voltage level present on Pin 1.

Thereafter, the host device may issue a command to switch to the four-bit SD bus interface, if the SD card supports it.

For various card types, support for the four-bit SD bus is either optional or mandatory. After determining that the SD card supports it, the host device can also command the SD card to switch to a higher transfer speed.

The host device is not required to use the maximum clock speed that the card supports. It may operate at less than the maximum clock speed to conserve power.

The SD specification defines four-bit-wide transfers. The MMC specification supports this and also defines an eight-bit-wide mode; MMC cards with extended bits were not accepted by the market.

Transferring several bits on each clock pulse improves the card speed. Advanced SD families have also improved speed by offering faster clock frequencies and double data rate explained here in a high-speed differential interface UHS-II.

Like other types of flash memory card, an SD card of any SD family is a block-addressable storage device , in which the host device can read or write fixed-size blocks by specifying their block number.

Most SD cards ship preformatted with one or more MBR partitions , where the first or only partition contains a file system. This lets them operate like the hard disk of a personal computer.

Most consumer products that take an SD card expect that it is partitioned and formatted in this way. Defragmentation tools for FAT file systems may be used on such cards.

The resulting consolidation of files may provide a marginal improvement in the time required to read or write the file, [] but not an improvement comparable to defragmentation of hard drives, where storing a file in multiple fragments requires additional physical, and relatively slow, movement of a drive head.

Moreover, defragmentation performs writes to the SD card that count against the card's rated lifespan. The write endurance of the physical memory is discussed in the article on flash memory ; newer technology to increase the storage capacity of a card provides worse write endurance.

Because the host views the SD card as a block storage device, the card does not require MBR partitions or any specific file system. The card can be reformatted to use any file system the operating system supports.

Additionally, as with live USB flash drives, an SD card can have an operating system installed on it. Computers that can boot from an SD card either using a USB adapter or inserted into the computer's flash media reader instead of the hard disk drive may thereby be able to recover from a corrupted hard disk drive.

The SD Standard allows usage of only the above-mentioned Microsoft FAT file systems and any card produced in the market shall be preloaded with the related standard file system upon its delivery to the market.

If any application or user re-formats the card with a non-standard file system the proper operation of the card, including interoperability, cannot be assured.

Reformatting an SD card with a different file system, or even with the same one, may make the card slower, or shorten its lifespan.

Some cards use wear leveling , in which frequently modified blocks are mapped to different portions of memory at different times, and some wear-leveling algorithms are designed for the access patterns typical of FAT12, FAT16 or FAT All SD cards let the host device determine how much information the card can hold, and the specification of each SD family gives the host device a guarantee of the maximum capacity a compliant card reports.

By the time the version 2. The resulting cards do not work correctly in some host devices. In standard-capacity cards SDSC , 12 bits identify the number of memory clusters ranging from 1 to 4, and 3 bits identify the number of blocks per cluster which decode to 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, , , or blocks per cluster.

The host device multiplies these figures as shown in the following section with the number of bytes per block to determine the card's capacity in bytes.

If the assumption is made in the driver software, success may be version-dependent. Later versions state at Section 4.

In the definition of SDHC cards in version 2. Two bits that were formerly reserved now identify the card family: Like most memory card formats, SD is covered by numerous patents and trademarks.

Early versions of the SD specification were available only after agreeing to a non-disclosure agreement NDA that prohibited development of an open source driver.

However, the system was eventually reverse-engineered , and free software drivers provided access to SD cards that did not use DRM.

Since then, the SDA has provided a simplified version of the specification under a less restrictive license. The proprietary nature of the complete SD specification affects embedded systems , laptop computers, and some desktop computers; many desktop computers do not have card slots, instead using USB -based card readers if necessary.

These card readers present a standard USB mass storage interface to memory cards, thus separating the operating system from the details of the underlying SD interface.

However, embedded systems such as portable music players usually gain direct access to SD cards and thus need complete programming information.

Desktop card readers are themselves embedded systems; their manufacturers have usually paid the SDA for complete access to the SD specifications.

Many notebook computers now include SD card readers not based on USB; device drivers for these essentially gain direct access to the SD card, as do embedded systems.

The SPI -bus interface mode is the only type that does not require a host license for accessing SD cards. Those open standards can be implemented without paying for licensing, royalties, or documentation.

However, SD is much more open than Sony's Memory Stick , for which no public documentation nor any documented legacy implementation is available.

Although the raw hardware interface to xD cards is well understood, the layout of its memory contents—necessary for interoperability with xD card readers and digital cameras—is totally undocumented.

The consortium that licenses xD cards has not released any technical information to the public. A malfunctioning SD card can be repaired using specialized equipment, as long as the middle part, containing the flash storage, is not physically damaged.

The controller can in this way be circumvented. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the gene, see SDHC gene. This section does not cite any sources.

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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. CD and DVD writing speed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Archived September 16, , at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 20 March The new capture protocol of SD 5. Retrieved 28 November Archived from the original PDF on NEC Laboratories, table 3, Speed class considered irrelevant: Retrieved 29 November Variations in 4k small block performance saw a difference of approximately fold between the fastest and slowest cards.

Distressingly, many of the tested cards were mediocre to poor on that metric, which may explain why running updates on Linux running off SD cards can take a very long time.

The new class of performance for applications on SD memory cards SD 5. Archived from the original on Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 29 May Heise mobile — c't magazin für computertechnik.

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